This is different from saying that commutes should or should not be reduced.
Urban theory argues that traffic congestion by itself, as an externality,
leads to overly decentralized monocentric cities, but that the consequences
are less clear when employment also decentralizes (Anas, Arnott and Small,
1998). Thus, unpriced congestion by itself contributes to longer commutes,
holding employment location fixed. However, the present study only explains
commuting, not its welfare economics.