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1. Notably, E. F. M. Durbin, H. D. Dickinson, and Abba Lerner. I am drawing on Don Lavoie's study of the debate (1985A). My quotations of Marx and Bukharin are borrowed from his work.

2. Elsewhere Hayek ([1946], 23) stresses that the philosophy he favors "affirms the value of the family and all the common efforts of the small community and group, . . . believes in local autonomy and voluntary associations, and . . . indeed its case rests largely on the contention that much for which the coercive action of the state is usually invoked can be done better by voluntary collaboration."

3. Diandas and Roth (1995) make the same point about urban transit using the example of shopping centers preventing unauthorized traders to set up stands on the walkways.

4. Hayek never declared that all roads and streets should be privatized. He says that certain amenities cannot be provided by market mechanisms, including "most roads (except some long-distance highways where tolls can be charged)" (Hayek 1979, 44). He says that market provision may be "technically impossible, or would be prohibitively costly." I wish to make four remarks. First, Hayek does not conclude that such amenities must be provided by government; he goes on to speak of the vitality and rich history of the "independent sector," which has provided amenities by voluntary, nonmarket, methods (pp. 49-51). Second, Hayek warns against the dangers of the government regulating "so-called public places," such as the "department store, sports ground or general purpose building," which are provided by private initiative (p. 48). Third, even when amenities ought to be provided by government, he favors provision by local and competing government (p. 45). Fourth, he explicitly notes the dependence of these matters on technology (p. 47). There is good reason to believe that as powerful new technologies have become available, such as electronic toll collection, computerized payment methods, video monitoring, in-vehicle parking meters, and the remote sensing of auto emissions, Hayek would be increasingly supportive of road privatization.

5. On whether government is really more democratic than "the market," see Richardson and Gordon (1993).

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