|Style Guidelines for Planning and Markets,
adapted by the editors from Style Guidelines for the Journal of Regional Science
Please submit your manuscript as an electronic attachment, regardless of whether it is an original submission or a revised version. Microsoft Word is preferred. Wordperfect is acceptable. Contact the editors for guidance concerning other formats. There are no strict page limits, but authors are urged to keep the length of their papers to about 30 pages of typed double-spaced text. This limit excludes appendices, tables, figures, and references. The general order of the components of a paper are first page, text including tables and figures, references, and appendices. A manuscript should be in Planning and Markets style when first submitted. Nonconforming submissions may be refereed, but authors will be asked to be reformat their work at a later stage if it is accepted for publication.
- First Page
The first page should include the title of the paper, name(s) of the authors, electronic and full mailing addresses of the authors, and any acknowledgments. Also, an abstract of the paper should be included in the style of those published in the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL). It should contain no more than 100 words and should include your JEL categorization preferences.
Spacing. The text should consist of double-spaced, six-inch lines in 12 point, Times New Roman font.
Subheadings. Major subsections should be identified with Roman numerals and boldface, centered headings with only the first letter of each word capitalized. The conventions of capitalization in titles should be maintained (e.g., II. Alternative Transit Options). The next level of subsection should be denoted with a heading that is nonnumbered, flush left, and boldface with only the first letter of the first word capitalized (e.g., Focus on busways). The third tier of subsections should have a title that is similar in style to the previous level, except that it is italicized, not bold (e.g.,Busway capacity).
Equations should be clearly separated from the text, centered, and numbered. Equation numbers should be within parentheses flush to the left margin. Equations to which later reference is made should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Refer to an equation in the text either by singly using the number in parentheses or by preceding the number in parentheses by 'Equation' (always capitalized).
Footnotes. Avoid footnotes, except Tables and Figures. Other information sufficiently relevant to warrant a footnote should be inserted in the text.
Mathematical Notation. Matrix and vector symbols should be in boldface. Scalars, elements of arrays, or other variables should be denoted in italics. Abbreviations for mathematical functions or notation, such as Max, Min, log. ln, e, cos, sin, tan, var, cov, prob are not italicized. Ratios and fractions in text are denoted using a slash (x/y) as opposed to the horizontal bar that is used in displayed equations. Diagonal matrices should be denoted by ^ over the symbol of the vector to be diagonalized. Notationally, "ln" is preferred to "loge" and "e" is preferred to "exp." If more than one level of sub- or superscript must be used, denote the various levels clearly. Likewise if both zero and the letter 'oh' are used as sub- or superscripts, be sure that the difference is apparent. The same is true for the number "one" and the letter "ell."
Numbers less than ten should be spelled out. Exceptions:
Within a single paragraph, numbers referring to a specific measure or type of item should be either all spelled out or all in numerals.
- percentages and decimal fractions
- numbers in a series containing one or more numbers greater than 10
- section, table, figure, and equation numbers
- Tables and Figures
All tables and figures must be cited in the text. Tables and Figures should appear at the top of the next page following the initial mention of the table or figure in the text.
Tables should be numbered consecutively through the entire text. Table footnotes should be identified by lower-case letters, not numbers. Table titles should be typed in the following style: TABLE 1: Title of Table (no period). Titles should appear above each table.
Figures. Initial submissions should include figures in final or near final form. They should be numbered consecutively. Titles should be typed as follows: FIGURE 1: Title of Figure (period). Have symbols for variables typed in italic or boldface type as appropriate. Computer-generated graphics are preferred to scanned images. Titles should appear below each figure.
Math in Tables and Figures. Decimal fractions less than 1.00 use an initial zero if the quantity being measured can exceed 1.00. If the quantity never exceeds 1.00, as in levels of significance, probabilities, and correlation coefficients, no preceding zero should be used.
For specific guidelines regarding figures and tables, please consult the EERI guidelines, available here in PDF format
- Citing References
General references to works or references to works supporting a claim should appear in the text, never in footnotes. For example:
"Consumer aggregation is not a straightforward matter in a spatial economy (Losch, 1954)."
"A proof is given in Greenhut and Qhta (1975, pp. 241-242)."
"Theoretical urban economists (Isard, 1956; Mills 1980) typically distinguish between agglomeration and localization economies."
References pertaining to subject matter of tangential interest also should be addressed in the text, not via footnotes. For example:
"To get an appreciation of the multidisciplinary reception which location-allocation models have been enjoying recently, see Ghosh and Rushton (1987)."
Style. As noted above, all citations should include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. If the author name(s) is (are) used in the text (as in Greenhut and Ohta, above), only the year and page reference (if any) should be included in parentheses. If the entire citation is parenthetical, separate name(s), year, and page number(s) by commas. If it is a multiple-reference citation, separate the references by semicolons, as shown for the Isard and Mills references above.
"et al." Use "et al." for citing references having more than three authors. However, all authors must be included in the reference list regardless of the number of authors for the work.
Quotations. Page numbers are needed for all direct quotes. Long quotes should be clearly separated from the text and displayed with wider margins than the rest of the text. For example:
"Capitalization is a concept employed in the study of financial markets to describe the economic process by which the future flow of costs and benefits accrued by the owner of an asset are reflected in the market value of that asset. The capitalization concept has been implemented extensively to study variations in urban land values and the location choices of urban land users." (Landers, 2000, p. 25)
- Reference List
The reference list should appear on separate pages following the text. Only cited references should be included in the list. The list should be in alphabetical order based upon the primary author's last name, and secondarily on subsequent co-authors. If references to two different works by the same author or set of authors are cited, they should be listed in order of ascending (earliest to most recent) publication date. If two or more works by an author or set of authors are published in the same year, use letter codes indicating the order in which they are cited in the text to delineate them. If the primary author of one reference is also the sole author of another reference, the single-authored piece should be listed before the co-authored piece.
Use a 3-em baseline in the place of the author's) name(s) for a reference that was written by the same author (set of authors) as the reference listed before it. If the set of authors in any way changes from one reference to the next, all of the authors' names must be included in the subsequent reference. First names should be fully spelled out and any middle initial(s) should be shown whenever possible, even if only first initials are indicated in the original works.
Miller, Ronald E. 1979. Dynamic Optimization and Economic Applications. New York: McGraw Hill.
Markusen, Ann, Peter Hail, and Amy Glasmeier. 1987. High Tech America. Boston: Alien and Unwin.
Lundqvist, Lars, Lars-Göran Mattsson, and Tschangho John Kim, eds. 1998. Network Infrastructure and the Urban Environment: Advances in Spatial Systems Modelling. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Selection from an Edited Book:
Boyce, David E. 1978. "Equilibrium Solutions to Combined Urban Residential Location, Mode Choice and Trip Assignment Models," in W. Buhr and P. Friedrich (eds.), Competition among Small Regions, Baden-Baden: Nomes Velagsgesellschaft, pp. 246-264.
Richardson, Harry W. 1985. "Input-Output and Economic Base Multipliers: Looking Backward and Forward," Journal of regional Science, 25, 607-661.
Working or Discussion Papers:
Nakagome, Masaki. 1988. "Regional Differences in Unemployment Rates and the Equilibrium of Local Dual Labor Markets with Imperfect Information," Working Paper No. 120, Regional Science Department, University of Pennsylvania.
Dissertation or Thesis:
Contant, Cheryl K. 1984. "Cumulative Impact Assessment: Design and Evaluation of an Approach for the Corps of Engineers Permit Program at the San Francisco District," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University.
Paper Presented at a Meeting:
Stevens, Benjamin H. and George I. Treyz. 1983. "Trends in Regional Industrial Diversification and Self-sufficiency and Their Implications for Growth," paper presented at the North American Regional Science Association Meetings, Chicago.
Sveikauskas, Leo. 1977. "Studies in the Cross-section Analysis of Productivity," Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Commerce (unpublished manuscript).
Institutional Reports with Author Known (book would be in italics not quotes):
Long, Larry H. and K. A. Hansen. 1979. "Reasons for Interstate Migration: Jobs, Retirement, Climate, and Other Influences," Current Population Reports, P-23, No. 81. Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.
Institutional Reports with Anonymous Authors:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Crop Reporting Board. 1978. Agricultural Prices, Annual Summary, 1977, PRI-3(78). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Weber, Alfred. 1929. Theory of the Location of Industries (Carl Friedrich, trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Magazine or Newspaper Article with Anonymous Authors:
New York Times. 1981. "Tiny Town Wins Six Year Battle for Own Electricity," January 11, p. 49.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Data Service. Various years. Climatological Data, National Summary. Asheville, NC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Forthcoming Date of Publication (Note: List year and volume number, if known):
Kuroda, Tatsuaki, Forthcoming. "Location of Public Facilities with Spill-over Effects," Journal of Regional Science.
- Other Details
In questions of detail, Planning and Markets attempts to follow the guidelines established by the Chicago Manual of Style (14th edition).